Bubble Sort Algorithm

In bubble sort, each pair of adjacent elements are compared and the elements are swapped if they are not follow the ordering rule.

Example

Let's take an array of 5 elements.

int arr[5] = {50, 25, 5, 20, 10}

Step 1

Bubble Sort Algorithm

We can notice that one element has been sorted after the above process.

In general, to sort N element using bubble sort, we need to do the same process N-1 times.

From next iteration onwards, we can skip the sorted elements. i.e. 50

Step 2

Bubble Sort Algorithm

Step 3

Bubble Sort Algorithm

Step 4

Bubble Sort Algorithm




Bubble Sort Program

/*
 * Program  : Bubble sort
 * Language : C
 */
#include<stdio.h>
#define size 5

void swap(int *x, int *y)
{
    int temp = *x;
    *x = *y;
    *y = temp;
}

void bubbleSort(int arr[])
{
    int i,j;
    for(i = 0; i < size-1; i++)
    {
        for(j = 0; j < size-1-i; j++)
        {
            if(arr[j] > arr[j+1])
                swap(&arr[j],&arr[j+1]);
        }
    }
}

int main()
{
    int arr[size] = {50, 25, 5, 20, 10}, i;

    bubbleSort(arr);

    printf("After the bubble sort\n");
    for(i = 0; i < size; i++)
        printf("%d ",arr[i]);

    return 0;
}




Binary Dollar Question

In the above program, we have used j < size-1-i condition in the inner for loop.

for(j = 0; j < size-1-i; j++)

What change it will bring? Can you guess?




Optimizing the Bubble Sorting Algorithm

We can optimize the bubble sort algorithm further.

Let's take a sorted array.

Example

int arr[5] = {5, 10, 15}

Bubble sort operation will be like below.

Bubble Sort Best Case




Observation

We can notice that the sorted array doesn't need any swap operation.

So, if no swap operation takes place, we can ensure that the array is sorted and we can break the process.

It will improve the efficiency of the bubble sort algorithm.


Example

/*
 * Program  : Improved Bubble Sort
 * Language : C
 */
#include<stdio.h>
#define size 5

void swap(int *x, int *y)
{
    int temp = *x;
    *x = *y;
    *y = temp;
}

void bubbleSort(int arr[])
{
    int i,j,flag;

    for(i = 0; i < size-1; i++)
    {
        flag = 0;
        //if any swap operation takes place, set flag as 1
        for(j = 0; j < size-1-i; j++)
        {
            if(arr[j] > arr[j+1])
            {
                swap(&arr[j],&arr[j+1]);
                flag = 1;
            }
        }
        //if flag remains 0, break the process
        if(flag == 0)
            break;
    }
}

int main()
{
    int arr[size] = {50, 25, 5, 20, 10}, i;

    bubbleSort(arr);

    printf("After the bubble sort\n");
    for(i = 0; i < size; i++)
        printf("%d ",arr[i]);

    return 0;
}


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