Factorial of a number

Factorial(n) = number of ways of arranging a set of n objects.




Factorial of empty set i.e 0

n = 0

empty set = {}

There is only one way to arrange the empty set.

{}

so, 0! = 1




Factorial of 1

n = 1

set ={1}

We can arrange it in one way

{1}

so, 1! = 1




Factorial of 2

n = 2

set = {1,2}

we can arrage it in two ways like below,

{1,2}

{2,1}

so 2! = 2





Factorial of 3

n = 3

set = {1,2,3}

we can arrange it in 6 ways like below,

{1,2,3}

{1,3,2}

{2,1,3}

{2,3,1}

{3,1,2}

{3,2,1}

so 3! = 6


Pictorial Explanation

factorial of a number

In general,

n factorial =

n >= 0     n! = n * n -1 * n-2 * n-3 ...* 1

n < 0       Not defined


Example

3! = 3 * 2 * 1

6


5! = 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1

120




Let's write a code

Example

#include<stdio.h>

int main()
{
    //set factorial variable as 1. 
    //if we set that as 0, end result will be zero
    int n,i,factorial = 1;
    
    //get input from user
    scanf("%d",&n);
    
    if(n < 0)
         printf("Enter a non-negative number\n");
    else
    {
        /*if n = 0 or n = 1, the loop will not be executed
         *initial value will be printed that is 1. (factorial = 1)
         */
         
        
        //if n = 5, ==> 2 * 3 * 4 * 5 
        //if n = 3, ==> 2 * 3
        for(i = 2; i <= n; i++)
            factorial = factorial * i;
            
        printf("%d! = %d",n,factorial);
    }
    
    return 0;
}


Topics You Might Like